The term smog was first coined in 1905 in a paper by Dr. Henry Antoine Des Voeux to describe the combination of smoke and fog. It is a yellowish or blackish fog formed mainly by a mixture of pollutants in the atmosphere. It consists of fine particles and ground-level ozone.

Types of Smog:

Sulfurous smog:

Sulfurous smog results from a high concentration of sulfur oxides in the air. It is caused by the use of sulfur-bearing fossil fuels, particularly coal. This type of smog is aggravated by dampness and a high concentration of suspended particulate matter in the air.

Photochemical smog:

This type of smog has its origin in the nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbon vapors emitted by automobiles and other sources, which then undergo photochemical reactions in the lower atmosphere. 

Major causes of Smog:


The use of coal as fuel in heating or power-producing plants discharges high concentrations of sulfur oxides in the atmosphere. 

Vehicular and Industrial Emissions: 

From the transportation sector because of fossil fuel combustion in cars, trucks, buses, motorbikes and gaseous emissions from industries results in smog formation.

Natural Causes: 

Smog can as well as occur due to natural causes like a volcanic eruption and some specific plant life effects.

Common effects of Smog:

  • Coughing and irritation of the eyes, chest, nose, and throat.
  • Aggravation of asthma
  •  Breathing difficulties and lung damage


Preventive measures:

  1. Purchase renewable energy.
  2. Reducing and managing vehicular and industrial emissions.
  3. Increasing energy efficiency and conserving energy.

If the air quality forecast is poor, stay indoors and keep your windows closed.

Avoid exercising in smoggy conditions

Wear a facemask 

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